Glossary of Fulfillment Terms

There's hundreds of terms used in warehousing and a lot of these are specific to the industry. We've compiled this glossary as a resource to make life easier for everyone!
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2D Barcode

3D Barcode

3PL

80/20 rule

A

A/B Testing

ABC Analysis

ABC Classification

ABC Inventory Control

ABC Model

ABC System

Abnormal Demand

Absorption Costing

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)

Acceptable Sampling Plan

Acceptance Number

Acceptance Sampling

Accessibility

Accessorial Charges

Accountability

Accounts Payable (A/P)

Accounts Receivable (A/R)

Accredited Standards Committee (ASC)

Accumulation Bin

Accuracy

Acknowledgement

Acquisition Cost

Action Message

Active Stock

Activity

Activity Analysis

Activity Level

Activity Profiling

Activity-Based Budgeting (ABB)

Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

Activity-Based Costing Model

Activity-Based Costing System

Activity-Based Management (ABM)

Activity-Based Planning (ABP)

Actual Cost of Sales (ACOS)

Actual Cost System

Actual Costs

Actual Demand

Ad Clicks

Ad Daily Budget

Ad Impressions

Ad Orders

Ad Sales

Ad Spend

Ad Status

Ad Status: Archived

Ad Status: Paused

Ad Status: Running

Additional Labeling

Administrative Monetary Penalty System (AMPS)

Advance Material Request

Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS)

Advanced Shipping Notice (ASN)

Affiliate Marketing

After-Sale Service

Agent

Aggregate Forecast

Aggregate Planning

Agility

Aging

Air Cargo

Air Cargo Agent

Air Cargo Containers

Air Carrier

Air Taxi

Air Waybill (AWB)

Algorithm

Alibaba

Alibaba Assessed Supplier

Alibaba Gold Supplier

Alibaba Trade Assurance

Allocation

Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN)

Amazon's Best Sellers Ranking (BSR)

American Society of Transportation & Logistics

American Trucking Associations

AMZ

Any-Quantity (AQ) rate

Application Programming Interface (API)

Arbitrage

Arrival Notice

Assemble to Order

Assembly

Association of American Railroads

ATA

ATD

Attributes

Audit

Audit Trail

Auditability

AutoID

Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS)

Automated Storage/Retrieval System (AS/RS)

Automatic Targeted Ads

Available to Promise (ATP)

Average Cost

Average Monthly Sales

Average Price

Average Reviews

Average Sales Rank

B

Back Order

Backorder

Bagging

Bale

Barcode

Barcode Scanner

Barcoding

Base Currency

Basing-Point Pricing

Batch Terminal Communications

Benchmarking

Benefit-Cost Ratio

Best Practice

Bill of Activities

Bill of Lading (BOL)

Bill of Lading Number

Bill of Material Accuracy

Bill of Materials

Bill of Resources

Binder

Blackbox

Blanket Purchase Order

Blanket Rate

Blanket Release

Blind Receiving

Bonded Warehouse

Booking

Booking Number

Bottleneck

Box Content

Boxcar

Bracing

Brand

Brand Registry

Break Bulk Cargo

Break Bulk Vessel

Break-Bulk

Break-Even Point

Brick & Mortar Store

Bubble Wrapping

Buffer Stock

Build to Inventory

Build to Order

Bulk Cargo

Bullwhip Effect

Bundle

Bundling

Business Application

Business Logistics

Business Performance Measurement (BPM)

Business Plan

Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

Business Unit

Business-to-business (B2B)

Buy Box

Buyer

C

Cab Extenders

Cage

Caged

CamelCamelCamel.com (CCC)

Capacity Management

Capacity Requirements Planning

CAPEX

Capital

Cargo

Carnet

Carrier

Carrier Assets

Carrier Certificate and Release Order

Carrier Liability

Carrier Service

Carrying costs

Cartage

Carton Flow Rack

Case Picking

Case Prep

Cash Conversion Cycle

Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time

Category

Category Management

CCD Scanner

Centralized Inventory Control

Cerebro

Certificate of Compliance

Certificate of Insurance

Certificate of Origin

Certificated Carrier

Certified Supplier

Change Management

Change Order

Changeover

Channel

Channel Conflict

Channel Partners

Channels of Distribution

Chargeable Weight

Charging Area

Chock

Claim

Class Rates

Classification

Classification yard

Clearance

Click-Through-Rate (CTR)

CLM

Co-Packer

Coastal Carriers

Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR)

Collect Freight

Commercial Invoice

Commercial zone

Committed Capability

Commodity Code (HS Code)

Commodity Procurement Strategy

Commodity Rate

Common Carrier

Competitive Benchmarking

Competitive Bid

Complete and On-Time Delivery (COTD)

Complete Manufacture to Ship Time

Compliance

Component

Composite forecast

Conference Carrier

Configuration

Configure/Package to Order

Consignee

Consignment inventory

Consignor

Consolidation

Consolidation Point

Consolidator

Consolidator's Bill of Lading

Consortium

Container

Container Chassis

Container Freight Station (CFS)

Container Freight Station Charge

Container Freight Station to Container Freight Station (CFS/CFS)

Container I.D.

Container on Flat Car (COFC)

Container Yard

Containerization

Continuous Flow Distribution (CFD)

Continuous Improvement (CI)

Continuous Replenishment

Contract

Contract Carrier

Contract of Affreightment

Contract warehouse

Controlled Access

Conveyance

Conveyor

Cooperative Associations

Coordinated Transportation

Core Competency

Core Process

Corporate strategy

Cost Allocation

Cost Center

Cost Driver

Cost Driver Analysis

Cost Management

Cost of capital

Cost of goods sold

Cost of Lost Sales

Cost-Per-Click (CPC)

Cost-Per-Mil/Thousand/Impression (CPM/CPI)

Cost, Insurance, Freight

Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP)

Count

Countertrade

Coupons

Courier Service

Crane

Credit Terms

Critical Differentiators

Critical Stock

Critical Success Factor (CSF)

Cross Docking

Crowdfunding

Cubage

Cube Out

Cube Utilization

Cubic Capacity

Cubic Space

Cumulative Lead Time

Currency Adjustment Factor (CAF)

Current-demand inventory

Customer Acquisition

Customer Order

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Customer Retention

Customer Segmentation

Customer-Supplier Partnership

Customer/Order Fulfillment Process

Customization

Customs

Customs Broker

Customs Clearance

Customs House Broker

Customs Invoice

Customs Value

Cut-off Time

CWT

Cycle Inventory

Cycle service level

Cycle stock

Cycle Time

D

Dashboard

Data Dictionary

Data Mining

Data Synchronization

Data Warehouse

Date Code

Days of Supply

Dead Stock

Deadweight Tons (DWT)

Declaration of Dangerous Goods

Declared Value for Carriage

Deconsolidator

Dedicated Contract Carriage

Defective goods inventory (DGI)

Delivery Appointment

Delivery Confirmation

Delivery Option

Delivery Order

Delivery Service

Delivery-Duty-Paid (DDP)

Delivery-Duty-Unpaid (DDU)

Demand

Demand Chain Management

Demand override

Demand Planning Systems

Demand Signal

Demand Supply Balancing

Demand variability

Demurrage

Deregulation

Destination

Destock

Devanning

Differential

Direct Cost

Direct Product Profitability (DPP)

Direct Production Material

Direct Retail Locations

Direct shipping

Direct Store Delivery (DSD)

Discrete Manufacturing

Discrete picking

Dispatch Confirmation

Disposal

Distributed Inventory

Distribution

Distribution Center (DC)

Distribution Channel

Distribution Channel Management

Distribution inventory

Distribution Planning

Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP)

Distribution Resource Planning (DRP II)

Distribution Warehouse

Distributor

Dock Receipt

Dock-to-stock cycle measurement

Document

Domestic Trunk Line Carrier

Double-Pallet Jack

Drayage

Drayage Firms

Driving Time Regulations

Drop

Drop Ship

Dual Operation

Dual rate system

Dumping

Dunnage

DUNS Number

Duties Pre-Paid (DDP)

Duty Free Zone (DFZ)

Duty Tax

E

EAN.UCC

Early Reviewer Program

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

Economic Value Added (EVA)

Economy of Scale

EDI Interchange

EDI Standards

EDI Transmission

Effective dates

Effective lead time

Electronic Commerce (EC)

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

Electronic Data Interchange Association

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)

Emergency Stock

Employer Identification Number (EIN)

End Item

End-of-Life Inventory

Engineer-to-order

Engineering Change

Enhanced Brand Content (EBC)

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System

Envelope

EPC (Electronic Product Code)

EPC or ePC

Equipment

Equipment I.D.

Equipment Positioning

European Article Number (EAN)

Evaluated Receipts Settlement (ERS)

Ex Works

Exempt Carrier

Expediting

Expiration Date

Export

Export Broker

Export Declaration

Export License

Exporter Identification Number (EIN)

Extended Enterprise

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

External Factory

F

Facilities

Federal Maritime Commission

FEU

Final Assembly

Final Assembly Schedule (FAS)

Finished Goods Inventory (FG or FGI)

Firm Planned Order

First In First Out (FIFO)

Fixed Costs

Fixed Order Quantity

Fixed reorder point

Flexibility

Flexport

Float

Flow Rack

FNSKU

FOB

FOB Destination

FOB Origin

Forecast

Forecasting

Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ)

Forklift Truck

Forward picking

Forwarding

Fourth Party Logistics (4PL)

FPA

Fragile Wrapping

Free Along Side (FAS)

Free Alongside Ship

Free on Board (FOB)

Free Shipping Promo

Freight

Freight Bill

Freight Charge

Freight Consolidation

Freight Forwarder

Freight terms

Fronthaul

Fulfilled-by-Amazon (FBA)

Fulfillment

Fulfillment by Merchant (FBM)

Fulfillment Center (FC)

Fulfillment Fee

Fulfillment Network Stock Keeping Unit (FNSKU)

Fulfillment Services Provider

Fulfillment Software

Full Containerload (FCL)

Full Truckload (FTL)

Full-Service Leasing

Full-time Connection

Functional Acknowledgement (FA)

Functional Group

G

Gated Category

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

General Order (GO)

General-Merchandise Warehouse

Giveaway Promo

Goods

Goods Receipt

Government Bill of Lading (GB/L)

Grandfather Clause

Granger Laws

Great Lakes Carriers

Gross Margin

Gross Profit

Gross Weight

Group logic

GTDI

GTIN

GTIN (Global Trade Item Number)

H

Handling Costs

Haulage

Hazardous Material

Headline Search Ad

Hedge inventory

Heijunka

Helium 10

Highway Trust Fund

Highway Use Taxes

Holding cost

House Air Waybill (HAWB)

Hub Airport

Hundredweight (CWT)

I

Igloos

Import

Import/Export License

Importation Point

In Bond

In-Transit Inventory

In-transit quantity

Inbound logistics

Incentive Rate

Incorporated (INC)

INCOTERMS

Independent demand methods

Indirect Cost

Infinite capacity scheduling

Inland Bill of Lading

Inland Carrier

Inner pack

Inspecting

Inspection Certificate

Insurance

Insurance Certificate

Integrated Carrier

Integrated Logistics

Integration

Interchange

Intercoastal carriers

Intercorporate hauling

Interleaving

Intermittent-Flow, Fixed-Path Equipment

Intermodal Container Transfer Facility

Intermodal Transportation

International Import Certificate

International Maritime Bureau (IMB)

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

International Standards Organization (ISO)

Internet

Interstate Commerce

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

Intrastate Commerce

Inventory

Inventory Accuracy

Inventory Carrying Cost

Inventory Cost

Inventory Management System (IMS)

Inventory Master File

Inventory Planning Systems

Inventory Turns

Invoice

ISO 14000 Series Standards

ISO 9000

Issuing Carrier

Item

Item coding

Item master

Item number

J

Jidoka

Joint Cost

Joint Rate

Jump Send

Just In Time (JIT)

Just in Time II (JIT II)

Just-in-Time Logistics (or Quick Response)

K

Kaizen

Kanban

Keiretsu

Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

Keywords

Kickstarter

Kitting

L

Lading

Land bridge

Landed Cost

Landing Page

Lash Barges

LASH Vessel

Last In First Out (LIFO)

Last Mile

Last Updated

Lead Logistics Provider (LLP)

Lead Time

Lead time demand

Lean strategy

Leg

Less-Than-Carload (LCL)

Less-Than-Containerload (LCL)

Less-Than-Truckload (LTL)

Less-Than-Truckload (LTL) Carriers

Lessee

Lessor

Letter of Credit (LOC)

Lettermail

License Plate Number (LPN)

Life Cycle Cost

Lighter

Lighterage

Lightning Deals

Limited Liability Company (LLC)

Line Functions

Line Item

Liner Service

Link

Liquidation

Listing

Loading Allowance

Loading Port

Local Area Network (LAN)

Location master file

Locational Determinant

Locator System

Logbook

Logistics

Logistics Center

Logistics Channel

Logistics Costs

Logistics Data Interchange (LDI)

Long Ton

Lost sales

Lot

Lot Control

Lot sizing

Lot Tracking

Lot-for-lot

LTL shipment

M

Machine Downtimes

Magnet

Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies (MRO)

Major Carrier

Make-or-Buy Decision

Make-to-order

Make-to-stock

Management information system (MIS)

Management of All Logistics

Manifest

Manually Targeted Ads

Manufacture Cycle Time

Manufacturer's Representative

Manufacturing Calendar

Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES)

Manufacturing Lead Time

Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II)

Marginal Cost

Market Demand

Market Dominance

Market Segment

Market-Positioned Warehouse

Marketing Funnel

Marks and Numbers

Mass Customization

Master Air Waybill (MAWB)

Master Carton

Master schedule

Material

Material Acquisition Costs

Material Index

Materials Handling

Materials Management

Materials Planning

Maximum Order Quantity

Mean absolute deviation

Mean error

Mean squared error

Measurement Ton

Merge In Transit

Micro-Land Bridge

Middleware

Mileage Allowance

Mileage Rate

Minimum Order Quantity (MOQ)

Minimum Weight

Mixed Loads

Modal Split

Movable unit

Move time

Moving average

Multi-Channel

Multi-Currency

Multi-Language

Multi-level bill of materials

Multi-Pack

N

National Carrier

National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC)

Negotiable BOL

Net Profit (AKA Profit Margin)

Net Weight

New Product Introduction (NPI)

Niche

No Location (No Loc)

Node

Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC)

Non-Certificated carrier

Non-Negotiable BOL

Non-stock inventory

Notify Party

O

Obsolete Inventory

Ocean Bill of Lading

Ocean Carrier

Offshore

OFX

Omni-Channel

On-Demand

On-Line receiving

On-time delivery

One-Piece Flow

Online Arbitrage (OA)

Operating Ratio

Opt-in

Optimization

Order

Order cost

Order cycle

Order Entry and Scheduling

Order Fill

Order Management

Order Management Costs

Order Picking

Order Processing

Ordering Cost

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)

Outbound Logistics

Outlier

Outpartnering

Outsource

Over-the-Road

Over, Short, and damaged (OS&D)

Overhead

P

Packing

Packing List

Pallet

Pallet picking

Pallet Wrapping Machine

Parcel

Parcel Manifest System

Parcel Shipment

Part Standardization

Parts list

Pay on Use

Pay Per Click Advertising (PPC)

Payment terms

Peak Demand

Peer to Peer (P2P)

Pegging

Percentage Off Promo

Perfect Order

Performance and Event Management Systems

Performance Measurement Program

Performance Measures

Performance Notifications

Periodic review methods

Perpetual Inventory

Photo Service

Physical Inventory

Physical Supply

Pick & Pack

Pick conveyor

Pick List

Pick Sequence

Pick Ticket/ Pick Instruction

Pick to Light

Pick-Up Order

Picking

Picking by Aisle

Picking by Source

Piece picking

Pipeline stock

Place Utility

Planned Date

Planned Order

Planned order receipt

Planned order release

Plant Finished Goods

Poka Yoke (mistake proof)

Poly Bagging

Pooling

Port

Port Authority

Port of Discharge

Port of Entry

Port of Loading

Portable Data Collection Terminal (PDT)

Portal

POS

Postponement

Pre-Expediting

Prep Center

Prepaid

Prepaid Freight

Price

Price discounts

Primary Manufacturing Strategy

Primary-Business Test

Private Carrier

Private Label

Private Trucking Fleets

Private Warehousing

Pro Forma Invoice

Pro Merchant Seller Account

Pro Number

Pro-forma

Process

Process Benchmarking

Process Improvement

Process Manufacturing

Procure-to-order

Procure-to-stock

Procurement

Procurement cycle

Product

Product Characteristics

Product Description

Product Family

Product ID

Product life cycle

Product Listing Grader

Production Capacity

Production Line

Production order

Production Planning and Scheduling

Production-Related Material

Productivity

Profit Ratio

Profitability Analysis

Promised date

Promotion

Proof of Delivery (POD)

Proportional Rate

Public Warehouse

Public Warehouse receipt

Public Warehousing

Pull Ordering System

Purchase Order (PO)

Purchase Price Discount

Purchasing

Push Distribution

Push system

Put Away

Q

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Quality

Quality Assurance/ QA

Quality Circle

Quality Control

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

Quantity discount

Quarantine

Queue time

Quick Response (QR)

R

Radio Frequency (RF)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Radio Frequency Terminal

Ramp Rate

Random-Location Storage

Rationing

Raw Materials (RM)

Real Time

Receiving

Receiving Dock

Reengineering

Referral Fee

Refrigerated Carriers

Release-to-Start Manufacturing

Removals

Reorder cost

Reorder level

Reorder Point

Replenishment

Replenishment rate

Request for Information (RFI)

Request for Proposal (RFP)

Request for Quote (RFQ)

Resellers

Reserve storage

Resources

Resources requirements planning

Retail Arbitrage (RO)

Retailer

Return Goods Handling

Return Material Authorization or Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA)

Return on Assets (ROA)

Return On Investment (ROI)

Return on Sales

Return Order Management Costs

Return Product Authorization (RPA)

Return to Vendor (RTV)

Returns

Returns Inventory Costs

Returns Processing Cost

Returns to Scale

Revenue

Reverse Engineering

Reverse Logistics

Rewarehousing

Routing Accuracy

Run Time

S

Safety Lead Time

Safety Stock

Salable Goods

Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP)

Sales Mix

Sales Order

Sales Page

Same SKU Pick

Sample

Sawtooth Diagram

Scalability

Scanlon Plan

Scientific inventory control

SCOR

Scorecard

Scrap

Scrap rate

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Seasonality

Seasonality index

Section 321

Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)

Self Billing

Self Correcting

Seller Central

Semi-processed materials

Sensitivity

Serial Number

Service Parts Revenue

Setup costs

Setup time

SFP (Seller Fulfilled Prime)

Shared Services

Shelf Life

Shelving

Shingo's Seven Wastes

Shipper

Shipper-Carriers

Shipping

Shipping Lane

Shipping Manifest

Shipping order

Shop Floor Production Control Systems

Shop order

Shopping Cart Integration

Short Shipment

Short-term schedules

Shortage

Shortage cost

Shrinkage

Simultaneous picking

Skills Matrix

Slotting

Small Group Improvement Activity

Sortation

Spare parts

Split Delivery

Split-case picking

Sponsored Ad

Spot Demand

Squeeze Page

SSCC (Serial Shipping Container Code)

Staging

Stakeholders

Standard business practices

Standard Components

Standard Cost Accounting System

Statement of Work (SOW)

Statistical Process Control (SPC)

Stickering

Stock

Stock cycle

Stock-Keeping Unit (SKU)

Stocking type

Stocking unit of measure

Stockout

Stocktaking

Storage

Storage Cost

Storage Location

Storefront

Straight Truck

Strategic Alliance

Sub-Optimization

Subcontracting

Subhauler

Subscription Box

Sunk Cost

Supplier

Supplier Certification

Supplier-Owned Inventory

Supply Chain

Supply Chain Design

Supply Chain Event Management (SCEM)

Supply Chain Integration (SCI)

Supply Chain Inventory Visibility

Supply Chain Management (SCM)

Supply Chain Network Design Systems

Supply Chain Strategic Planning

Supply Chain-Related Finance and Planning Cost Element

Supply Chain-Related IT Costs

Supply Planning

Supply Warehouse

Support Costs

Surrogate [item] Driver

Sustaining Activity

SWOT Analysis

Synchronization

T

Taguchi Method

Takeaway conveyor

Takt Time

Tare Weight

Target Costing

Target stock level

Tariff

Task interleaving

Tasks

Tender

Theory of Constraints (TOC)

Third Party Logistics (3PL)

Third Party Warehousing

Throughput

Tier 1, 2 supplier

Total Annual Sales

Total Average Inventory

Total Cost Analysis

Total Cost Curve

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

Total Cumulative Manufacture Cycle Time

Total Make Cycle Time

Total Product Revenue

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Total Quality Management

Total Supply Chain Management Cost (five elements)

Total Supply Chain Response Time

Touch Labor

Traceability

Tracing

Tracking

Trading Partner

Trading Partner Agreement

Traffic

Traffic Management

Trailer

Trailer Drops

Transaction

Transaction Set

Transaction Set ID

Transit Time

Transparency

Transportation inventory

Transportation Management System

Transportation Mode

Transportation Planning

Transportation Planning Systems

Trend

Trend Forecasting Models

Truck Stop Electrification (TSE)

Truckload Carriers (TL)

Truckload Lot

Tunraround

Turnover

U

Umbrella Rate

Unattended Delivery

Unbundled Payment/Remittance

UNECE

Unfinished goods

Uniform Code Council (UCC)

Uniform Product Code (UPC)

Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act

Unique Parcel Identifier (UPI)

Unit

Unit Cost

Unit load

Unit Load Device (ULD)

Unit of Measure (UOM)

Unit Train

United Nations Standard Product and Service Code (UN/SPSC)

United States Railway Association

Unitization

Unitize

Unplanned Order

Unverified Reviews

UPC (Universal Product Code)

Upsell

Upside Production Flexibility

Utility

V

Valid minimum

Valid total cost curve

Valuation Charges

Value Added

Value Adding/Non-Value Adding

Value Analysis

Value Chain

Value Chain Analysis

Value Proposition

Value-Added Network (VAN)

Value-Added Productivity Per Employee

Value-of-Service Pricing

Variable Cost

Velocity

Vendor

Vendor Code

Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI)

Verified Reviews

Vertical Hub/Vertical Portal

Vertical Integration

Vessel

Vessel Manifest

Viral Launch

Virtual Assistant (VA)

Visibility

Vision

Voice Activated

W

Warehouse

Warehouse Management System (WMS)

Warehousing

Warning Labels

Warranty Costs

Waste

Waterway Use Tax

Wave

Wave Picking

Waybill

Wedge

Weight Break

Weight Confirmation

Weight-Losing Raw Material

Wharfage

White Label

Wholesale

Wholesale Pick

Wide-Area Network (WAN)

Work in Process (WIP)

Y

Yield

Yield rate

Z

Zero Inventory

Zone of Rate Freedom

Zone of Reasonableness

Zone Picking

Zone Price


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