Glossary of Fulfillment Terms

There's hundreds of terms used in warehousing and a lot of these are specific to the industry. We've compiled this glossary as a resource to make life easier for everyone!
[glosary]

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2D Barcode
3D Barcode
3PL
80/20 rule

A

ABC Analysis
ABC Classification
ABC Inventory Control
ABC Model
ABC System
Abnormal Demand
Absorption Costing
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
Acceptable Sampling Plan
Acceptance Number
Acceptance Sampling
Accessibility
Accessorial Charges
Accounts Payable (A/P)
Accounts Receivable (A/R)
Accredited Standards Committee (ASC)
Accumulation Bin
Accuracy
Acknowledgement
Acquisition Cost
Action Message
Active Stock
Activity
Activity Analysis
Activity-Based Budgeting (ABB)
Activity-Based Costing (ABC)
Activity-Based Costing Model
Activity-Based Costing System
Activity-Based Management (ABM)
Activity-Based Planning (ABP)
Activity Level
Activity Profiling
Actual Cost System
Actual Costs
Actual Demand
Administrative Monetary Penalty System (AMPS)
Advance Material Request
Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS)
Advanced Shipping Notice (ASN)
After-Sale Service
Agent
Aging
Aggregate Forecast
Aggregate Planning
Agility
Air Cargo
Air Cargo Agent
Air Cargo Containers
Air Carrier
Air Taxi
Air Waybill (AWB)
Allocation
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
American Society of Transportation & Logistics
American Trucking Associations
Any-Quantity (AQ) rate
Arrival Notice
Application Programming Interface (API)
Assemble to Order
Assembly
Association of American Railroads
ATA
ATD
Attributes
Audit
Auditability
Audit Trail
AutoID
Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS)
Automated Storage/Retrieval System (AS/RS)
Available to Promise (ATP)
Average Cost

B

Back Order
Backflush
Backhaul
Backorder
Bale
Barcode
Barcode Scanner
Barcoding
Base Currency
Basing-Point Pricing
Batch Terminal Communications
Benchmarking
Benefit-Cost Ratio
Best Practice
Bill of Activities
Bill of Lading (BOL)
Bill of Lading Number
Bill of Materials
Bill of Material Accuracy
Bill of Resources
Bin Center
Binder
Blanket Purchase Order
Blanket Rate
Blanket Release
Blind Receiving
Bonded Warehouse
Booking
Booking Number
Bottleneck
Boxcar
Bracing
Bracketed Recall
Break-Bulk
Break Bulk Cargo
Break Bulk Vessel
Break-Even Point
Buffer
Buffer Management
Buffer Stock
Build to Inventory
Build to Order
Bulk Area
Bulk Cargo
Bullwhip Effect
Bundling
Business Application
Business Logistics
Business Plan
Business Performance Measurement (BPM)
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
Business Unit
Buyer

C

Cab Extenders
Cabotage
Cage
Caged
Can-Order Point
Capacity Management
Capacity Requirements Planning
CAPEX
Capital
Cargo
Carnet
Carrier
Carrier Assets
Carrier Certificate and Release Order
Carrier Liability
Carrier Service
Carrying costs
Cartage
Carton Flow Rack
Case Picking
Cash Conversion Cycle
Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time
Category Management
CCD Scanner
CELL
Central Dispatching
Centralized Inventory Control
Certificate of Compliance
Certificate of Insurance
Certificate of Origin
Certificated Carrier
Certified Supplier
Change Management
Change Order
Changeover
Channel
Channel Conflict
Channel Partners
Channels of Distribution
Chargeable Weight
Charging Area
Chock
CL
Claim
Class I Carrier
Class II Carrier
Class III Carrier
Class 1 Railroad
Class Rates
Classification
Classification yard
Clearance
Clearinghouse
CLM
Closed Loop MRP
Co-Packer
Co-Managed Inventory (CMI)
Coastal Carriers
Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR)
Collect Freight
Commercial Invoice
Commercial zone
Committed Capability
Commodity Code (HS Code)
Commodity Procurement Strategy
Commodity Rate
Common Carrier
Competitive Benchmarking
Competitive Bid
Complete and On-Time Delivery (COTD)
Complete Manufacture to Ship Time
Compliance
Component
Composite forecast
Conference Carrier
Configuration
Configure/Package to Order
Confirmation
Consignee
Consignment inventory
Consignor
Consolidation
Consolidation Point
Consolidator
Consolidator's Bill of Lading
Consortium
Container
Container Chassis
Container Freight Station (CFS)
Container Freight Station Charge
Container Freight Station to Container Freight Station (CFS/CFS)
Container I.D.
Containerization
Container on Flat Car (COFC)
Container Yard
Continuous Flow Distribution (CFD)
Continuous-Flow, Fixed-Path Equipment
Continuous Improvement (CI)
Continuous Replenishment
Contract
Contract Carrier
Contract of Affreightment
Contract warehouse
Contribution
Contribution Margin
Controlled Access
Conveyance
Conveyor
Cooperative Associations
Coordinated Transportation
Core Competency
Core Process
Corporate strategy
Cost Allocation
Cost Center
Cost Driver
Cost Driver Analysis
Cost, Insurance, Freight
Cost Management
Cost of capital
Cost of goods sold
Cost of Lost Sales
Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP)
Countertrade
Courier Service
Crane
Credit Terms
Critical Differentiators
Critical Stock
Critical Success Factor (CSF)
Cross Docking
Cubage
Cube Out
Cube Utilization
Cubic Capacity
Cubic Space
Cubing
Cumulative Lead Time
Currency Adjustment Factor (CAF)
Current-demand inventory
Customer Acquisition or Retention
Customer Order
Customer/Order Fulfillment Process
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Customer Segmentation
Customer-Supplier Partnership
Customization
Customs
Customs Broker
Customs Clearance
Customs House Broker
Customs Invoice
Customs Value
Cut-off Time
CWT
Cycle Inventory
Cycle service level
Cycle stock
Cycle Time

D

Dashboard
Data Dictionary
Data Mining
Data Synchronization
Data Warehouse
Date Code
Days of Supply
Dead Stock
Deadweight Tons (DWT)
Declaration of Dangerous Goods
Declared Value for Carriage
Deconsolidator
Dedicated Contract Carriage
Defective goods inventory (DGI)
Delivery Appointment
Delivery Confirmation
Delivery-Duty-Paid (DDP)
Delivery-Duty-Unpaid (DDU)
Delivery Order
Delivery Option
Delivery Service
Demand Chain Management
Demand
Demand override
Demand Planning Systems
Demand Signal
Demand Supply Balancing
Demand variability
Demurrage
Deregulation
Dispatch Confirmation
Destination
Destock
Devanning
Differential
Direct Cost
Direct Product Profitability (DPP)
Direct Production Material
Direct Retail Locations
Direct shipping
Direct Store Delivery (DSD)
Discrete Manufacturing
Discrete picking
Distributed Inventory
Distribution
Distribution Center (DC)
Distribution Channel
Distribution Channel Management
Distribution inventory
Distribution Planning
Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP)
Distribution Resource Planning (DRP II)
Distribution Warehouse
Distributor
Dock Receipt
Dock-to-stock cycle measurement
Document
Domestic Trunk Line Carrier
Double-Pallet Jack
Drayage
Drayage Firms
Driving Time Regulations
Drop
Drop Ship
Dual Operation
Dual rate system
Dumping
Dunnage
DUNS Number
Duty Free Zone (DFZ)

E

EAN.UCC
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)
Economic Value Added (EVA)
Economy of Scale
EDI Interchange
EDI Standards
EDI Transmission
Effective dates
Effective lead time
Electronic Commerce (EC)
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
Electronic Data Interchange Association
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
EPC (Electronic Product Code)
Emergency Stock
End Item
End-of-Life Inventory
Engineer-to-order
Engineering Change
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System
Envelope
EPC or ePC
Equipment
Equipment I.D.
Equipment Positioning
Evaluated Receipts Settlement (ERS)
Exempt Carrier
Expediting
Expiration Date
Export
Export Broker
Export Declaration
Export License
Exporter Identification Number (EIN)
Extended Enterprise
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
External Factory
Ex Works

F

Facilities
Federal Maritime Commission
FEU
Final Assembly
Final Assembly Schedule (FAS)
Finished Goods Inventory (FG or FGI)
Firm Planned Order
First In First Out (FIFO)
Fixed Costs
Fixed Order Quantity
Fixed reorder point
Flexibility
Float
Flow Rack
FOB
FOB Destination
FOB Origin
Forecast
Forecasting
Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ)
Forklift Truck
Forward picking
Fourth Party Logistics (4PL)
FPA
Free Along Side (FAS)
Free Alongside Ship
Free on Board (FOB)
Freight
Freight Bill
Freight Charge
Freight Consolidation
Freight Forwarder
Freight terms
Fronthaul
Fulfillment
Fulfillment Services Provider
Fulfillment Software
Full Containerload (FCL)
Full-Service Leasing
Full-time Connection
Full Truckload (FTL)
Functional Acknowledgement (FA)
Functional Group

G

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
General-Merchandise Warehouse
General Order (GO)
GTIN (Global Trade Item Number)
Goods
Goods Receipt
Government Bill of Lading (GB/L)
Grandfather Clause
Granger Laws
Great Lakes Carriers
Gross Margin
Gross Weight
Group logic
GTDI
GTIN

H

Handling Costs
Haulage
Hazardous Material
Hedge inventory
Heijunka
Highway Trust Fund
Highway Use Taxes
Holding cost
House Air Waybill (HAWB)
Hub
Hub Airport
Hundredweight (CWT)

I

Igloos
Import
Importation Point
Import/Export License
In Bond
Inbound logistics
Incentive Rate
INCOTERMS
Independent demand methods
Indirect Cost
Infinite capacity scheduling
Inland Bill of Lading
Inland Carrier
Inner pack
Inspection Certificate
Insurance Certificate
Integrated Carrier
Integrated Logistics
Interchange
Intercoastal carriers
Intercorporate hauling
Interleaving
Intermittent-Flow, Fixed-Path Equipment
Intermodal Container Transfer Facility
Intermodal Transportation
International Import Certificate
International Maritime Bureau (IMB)
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
International Standards Organization (ISO)
Internet
Interstate Commerce
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
In-Transit Inventory
Intrastate Commerce
In-transit quantity
Inventory
Inventory Accuracy
Inventory Carrying Cost
Inventory Cost
Inventory Management System (IMS)
Inventory Master File
Inventory Planning Systems
Inventory Turns
Invoice
ISO 9000
ISO 14000 Series Standards
Issuing Carrier
Item
Item coding
Item master
Item number

J

Jidoka
Joint Cost
Joint Rate
Just In Time (JIT)
Just in Time II (JIT II)
Just-in-Time Logistics (or Quick Response)

K

Kaizen
Kanban
Keiretsu
Key Performance Indicator (KPI)
Kitting

L

Lading
Land bridge
Landed Cost
Lash Barges
LASH Vessel
Last In First Out (LIFO)
Last Mile
Last Updated
Lead Logistics Provider (LLP)
Lead Time
Lead time demand
Lean strategy
Leg
Less-Than-Carload (LCL)
Less-Than-Containerload (LCL)
Less-Than-Truckload (LTL) Carriers
Less-Than-Truckload (LTL)
Lessee
Lessor
Letter of Credit (LOC)
Lettermail
License Plate Number (LPN)
Life Cycle Cost
Lighter
Lighterage
Line Functions
Line Item
Liner Service
Link
Local Area Network (LAN)
Loading Allowance
Loading Port
Locational Determinant
Location master file
Locator System
Logbook
Logistics
Logistics Center
Logistics Channel
Logistics Costs
Logistics Data Interchange (LDI)
Long Ton
Lost sales
Lot
Lot Control
Lot sizing
Lot Tracking
Lot-for-lot
LTL shipment

M

Machine Downtimes
Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies (MRO)
Major Carrier
Make-or-Buy Decision
Make-to-order
Make-to-stock
Management information system (MIS)
Management of All Logistics
Manifest
Manufacture Cycle Time
Manufacturer's Representative
Manufacturing Calendar
Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES)
Manufacturing Lead Time
Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II)
Marginal Cost
Market Demand
Market Dominance
Market-Positioned Warehouse
Market Segment
Marks and Numbers
Mass Customization
Master Air Waybill (MAWB)
Master Carton
Master schedule
Material
Material Acquisition Costs
Materials Handling
Material Index
Materials Management
Materials Planning
Maximum Order Quantity
Mean absolute deviation
Mean error
Mean squared error
Measurement Ton
Merge In Transit
Micro-Land Bridge
Middleware
Mileage Allowance
Mileage Rate
Minimum Weight
Mixed Loads
Modal Split
Movable unit
Move time
Moving average
Multi-Channel
Multi-Currency
Multi-Language
Multi-level bill of materials
Multiple-Car Rate

N

National Carrier
National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC)
Negotiable BOL
Net Weight
New Product Introduction (NPI)
Node
No Location (No Loc)
Non-Certificated carrier
Non-Negotiable BOL
Non-stock inventory
Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC)
Notify Party

O

Obsolete Inventory
Ocean Bill of Lading
Ocean Carrier
Offshore
Omni-Channel
On-Demand
One-Piece Flow
On-Line receiving
On-time delivery
Operating Ratio
Operational Performance Measurements
Optimization
Order
Order cost
Order cycle
Order Entry and Scheduling
Order Fill
Order Management
Order Management Costs
Order Picking
Order Processing
Ordering Cost
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)
Outbound Logistics
Outlier
Outpartnering
Outsource
Over, Short, and damaged (OS&D)
Over-the-Road
Overhead

P

Packing
Packing List
Pallet
Pallet picking
Pallet Wrapping Machine
Parcel
Parcel Manifest System
Parcel Shipment
Part Standardization
Parts list
Pay on Use
Payment terms
Peak Demand
Peer to Peer (P2P)
Pegging
Perfect Order
Performance and Event Management Systems
Performance Measures
Performance Measurement Program
Periodic review methods
Perpetual Inventory
Physical Inventory
Physical Supply
Pick & Pack
Pick conveyor
Pick Ticket/ Pick Instruction
Picking
Picking by Aisle
Picking by Source
Pick List
Pick Sequence
Pick to Light
Pick-Up Order
Piece picking
Pipeline stock
Place Utility
Planned Date
Planned Order
Planned order receipt
Planned order release
Plant Finished Goods
Point of Use Delivery
Poka Yoke (mistake proof)
Pooling
Port
Port Authority
Port of Discharge
Port of Entry
Port of Loading
Portable Data Collection Terminal (PDT)
Portal
POS
Postponement
Pre-Expediting
Prepaid
Prepaid Freight
Price
Price discounts
Primary-Business Test
Primary Manufacturing Strategy
Private Carrier
Private Label
Private Trucking Fleets
Private Warehousing
Process
Process Benchmarking
Process Improvement
Process Manufacturing
Procure-to-order
Procure-to-stock
Procurement
Procurement cycle
Product
Product Characteristics
Product Description
Product Family
Product ID
Product life cycle
Production Capacity
Production Line
Production order
Production Planning and Scheduling
Production-Related Material
Productivity
Profit Ratio
Profitability Analysis
Pro-forma
Pro Forma Invoice
Progressive assembly picking
Projective forecast
Promised date
Promotion
Pro Number
Proof of Delivery (POD)
Proportional Rate
Public Warehouse
Public Warehousing
Public Warehouse receipt
Pull Signal
Pull Ordering System
Purchase Order (PO)
Purchase Price Discount
Purchasing
Push Distribution
Push system
Put Away

Q

Quality
Quality Assurance/ QA
Quality Circle
Quality Control
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Quantity discount
Quarantine
Queue time
Quick Response (QR)

R

Radio Frequency (RF)
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Radio Frequency Server
Radio Frequency Terminal
Ramp Rate
Random-Location Storage
Rationing
Raw Materials (RM)
Real Time
Receiving
Receiving Dock
Reengineering
Refrigerated Carriers
Release-to-Start Manufacturing
Reorder cost
Reorder level
Reorder Point
Replenishment
Replenishment rate
Request for Information (RFI)
Request for Proposal (RFP)
Request for Quote (RFQ)
Resellers
Reserve storage
Resources
Resources requirements planning
Retailer
Return Goods Handling
Return Material Authorization or Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA)
Return on Assets (ROA)
Return on Sales
Return Order Management Costs
Return Product Authorization (RPA)
Return to Vendor (RTV)
Returns Inventory Costs
Returns Processing Cost
Returns to Scale
Reverse Engineering
Reverse Logistics
Rewarehousing
Routing or Routing Guide
Routing Accuracy
Run Time

S

Safety Lead Time
Safety Stock
Salable Goods
Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP)
Sales Mix
Sales Order
Sawtooth Diagram
Scalability
Scanlon Plan
Scientific inventory control
SCOR
Scorecard
Scrap
Scrap rate
Seasonality
Seasonality index
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
Section 321
Self Billing
Self Correcting
Semi-processed materials
Sensitivity
Serial Number
SSCC (Serial Shipping Container Code)
Service Parts Revenue
Setup costs
Setup time
Shared Services
Shelf Life
Shingo's Seven Wastes
Shipper
Shipper-Carriers
Shipping
Shipping Lane
Shipping Manifest
Shipping order
Shop Floor Production Control Systems
Shop order
Shopping Cart Integration
Short Shipment
Shortage
Shortage cost
Short-term schedules
Shrinkage
Simultaneous picking
Six-Sigma Quality
Skills Matrix
Slotting
Small Group Improvement Activity
Sortation
Spare parts
Split-case picking
Split Delivery
Spot Demand
Staging
Stakeholders
Standard business practices
Standard Components
Standard Cost Accounting System
Statement of Work (SOW)
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
Stickering
Stock
Stock cycle
Stocktaking
Stock-Keeping Unit (SKU)
Stocking type
Stocking unit of measure
Stockout
Storage Cost
Storage Location
Straight Truck
Strategic Alliance
Sub-Optimization
Subcontracting
Subhauler
Subscription Box
Sunk Cost
Supplier
Supplier Certification
Supplier-Owned Inventory
Supply Chain
Supply Chain Design
Supply Chain Execution (SCE)
Supply Chain Event Management (SCEM)
Supply Chain Integration (SCI)
Supply Chain Inventory Visibility
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Supply Chain Network Design Systems
Supply Chain-Related Finance and Planning Cost Element
Supply Chain-Related IT Costs
Supply Chain Strategic Planning
Supply Planning
Supply Warehouse
Support Costs
Surrogate [item] Driver
Sustaining Activity
SWOT Analysis
Synchronization

T

Taguchi Method
Takeaway conveyor
Takt Time
Tare Weight
Target Costing
Target stock level
Tariff
Task interleaving
Tasks
Tender
Theory of Constraints (TOC)
Third Party Logistics (3PL)
Third Party Warehousing
Throughput
Tier 1, 2 supplier
Total Annual Sales
Total Average Inventory
Total Cost Analysis
Total Cost Curve
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
Total Cumulative Manufacture Cycle Time
Total Make Cycle Time
Total Product Revenue
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
Total Quality Management
Total Supply Chain Management Cost (five elements)
Total Supply Chain Response Time
Touch Labor
Tracing
Traceability
Tracking
Trading Partner
Trading Partner Agreement
Traffic
Traffic Management
Trailer
Trailer Drops
Transaction
Transaction Set
Transaction Set ID
Transit Time
Transparency
Transportation inventory
Transportation Management System
Transportation Mode
Transportation Planning
Transportation Planning Systems
Trend
Trend Forecasting Models
Truck Stop Electrification (TSE)
Truckload Carriers (TL)
Truckload Lot
Turnover

U

Umbrella Rate
Unattended Delivery
Unbundled Payment/Remittance
UNECE
Unfinished goods
Uniform Code Council (UCC)
Uniform Product Code (UPC)
Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act
Unit Cost
Unit load
Unit Load Device (ULD)
Unit of Measure (UOM)
Unit Train
United Nations Standard Product and Service Code (UN/SPSC)
United States Railway Association
Unitization
Unitize
UPC (Universal Product Code)
Unplanned Order
Unique Parcel Identifier (UPI)
Upsell
Upside Production Flexibility
Utility

V

Valid minimum
Valid total cost curve
Valuation Charges
Value Added
Value-Added Network (VAN)
Value-Added Productivity Per Employee
Value Adding/Non-Value Adding
Value Analysis
Value Chain
Value Chain Analysis
Value-of-Service Pricing
Value Proposition
Variable Cost
Velocity
Vendor
Vendor Code
Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI)
Vertical Hub/Vertical Portal
Vertical Integration
Vessel
Vessel Manifest
Visibility
Vision
Voice Activated

W

Warehouse
Warehousing
Warehouse Management System (WMS)
Warranty Costs
Waste
Waterway Use Tax
Wave
Wave Picking
Waybill
Wedge
Weight Break
Weight Confirmation
Weight-Losing Raw Material
Wharfage
Wide-Area Network (WAN)
Work in Process (WIP)

X

Y

Yield
Yield rate

Z

Zero Inventory
Zone-batch picking
Zone of Rate Flexibility
Zone of Rate Freedom
Zone of Reasonableness
Zone Picking
Zone Price


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